Atomic and Molecular structure
An atom is made up of protons, neutrons and electrons. Protons are positively charged and they denote the atomic number. Neutrons have no electrical charge. Protons and neutrons are present in the nucleus. Electrons are negatively charged and present in the orbits surrounding the nucleus. Valence electrons are the number of electrons in the outer shell. Organic acids are those that are derived from living organisms, usually from metabolism. Esters are condensation products of carboxylic acids with the removal of water. . Isotopes have same number of protons but different number of neutrons. Loss or gain of electrons is seen in ions. Radicals have a single electron; there is no loss or gain of electrons in them. . Lewis structures are drawn using the valence electron. Each pair of electrons makes one bond.
Types of carbon molecules
Carbon molecules are of four types: Stable neutral molecule, carbanion, carbocation and radical. A stable neutral molecule has not gained or lost electrons, carbanion has gained electrons, carbocation has lost electrons and radical is neutral and has a single electron.
Stereoisomers have the same atomic formula and connectivity but differ in the 3D position of the atoms. Chiral carbon has four different groups attached.
Intramolecular bond interactions
Electronegativity is an atom’s ability to attract electrons. Bond polarity occurs when the bonding electrons are not shared equally in a covalent bond. There are mainly two types of bonding, ionic and covalent. In ionic bonding, transfer of electrons takes place. In covalent bonding, sharing of electrons occurs. It may be either polar covalent bonding or non polar covalent bonding. Bond cleavage is of two types: hemolytic- each fragment gets one electron, radicals are formed. Heterolytic – one fragment gets both electrons and the other fragment gets no electrons, ions are formed.
Intermolecular forces are of three types: London dispersion forces – between non polar molecules, dipole-dipole forces between polar molecules, hydrogen bonding between molecules with OH, -NH or HF.