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Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic Cells:
Structure and Function Review

Topic Review on "Title":
  • Do not have membrane bound organelles.  The DNA of prokaryotes is simple in structure and floats freely in the cell.  The cell walls typically consist of peptidoglycan molecules. 
  • The cell wall of prokaryotes is a fluid phospholipid bilayer having no carbohydrates on the membrane and typically no sterols.  Although the membrane does have hopanoids (which are sterol like) molecules. 
  • Eukaryotes have membrane bound organelles.  Their DNA is complex and typically associated with structural and regulatory proteins and it is contained within a membrane bound nucleus.  The cells are about ten times larger then those of prokaryotes.  Some eukaryotes (e.g. plants) have cell walls but are not made up of peptidoglycan molecules.  
  • Replication in prokaryotes involves mitosis and meiosis.  Meiosis occurs in sex cells like sperm and egg.  The eukaryote cell member is a fluid phospholipid bilayer containing sterols and carbohydrates.  The membranes can endocytose, phagocytose, pinocytose and exocytose.
  • In animal cells the plasma membrane is the only separation between the cell’s interior and the environment. 
  • In fungi, bacteria and plants there is an additional cell wall as the outer most boundary. 
  • The plasma membrane is about 10 nm thick and is a selective barrier. 

Cell wallA cell membrane is a lipid bilayer that usually has proteins associated with its surface, interior or even transmembrane. 
The membrane is selectively permeable. 
Microbe Evolution: The concept of common evolutionary ancestor is introduced.
Cell Mobility and Locomotion:
The motion of eukaryotes and prokaryotes when done using flagella is fundamentally different.  Structurally the flagella are different and eukaryotes typically used ATP (myosin) as an energy source to drive the motion of the flagella.

Rapid Study Kit for "Title":
Flash Movie Flash Game Flash Card
Core Concept Tutorial Problem Solving Drill Review Cheat Sheet

"Title" Tutorial Summary :

The major structural features of prokaryotes and eukaryotes are presented.  Eukaryotes have membrane bound organelles and their division cycle involves mitosis and meiosis.  Prokaryotes have cell walls but do not have membrane bound organelles.  Prokaryotes typically replicate by binary fission.

The basic taxonomy criterion is presented and the characteristics used in classification are defined.  The nomenclature of microbe naming is introduced.

Tutorial Features:
Specific Tutorial Features:
  • Structure of prokaryotes and eukaryotes are introduced and side by side comparisons made to demonstrate the differences in structures.
  • The primary classification parameters on which much of the taxonomy of microbes is introduced and applied. 
  • The evolutionary basis for the structure and function of organisms are introduced.
Series Features:
  • Concept map showing inter-connections of new concepts in this tutorial and those previously introduced.
  • Definition slides introduce terms as they are needed.
  • Visual representation of concepts
  • Animated examples—worked out step by step
  • A concise summary is given at the conclusion of the tutorial.

"Title" Topic List:

Prokaryote Overview
Eukaryote Overview
Structure, Function, and Replication Prokaryote
Structure, Function, and Replication Eukaryote
Basic Taxonomy of Prokaryote and Eukaryote
Nomenclature of Microbiology Prokaryotes and Eukaryotes
Identification of Microbes
Evolution of Microbes
Fungus Structure
Cell Mobility and Locomotion

See all 24 lessons in Anatomy and Physiology, including concept tutorials, problem drills and cheat sheets:  Teach Yourself Microbiology Visually in 24 Hours

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